SynTraCE-21 Timeline
 Launch         Sunset 
 2009  2010


 2012  2013  2014

Regional and global principal components (PCs) for temperature (T) and precipitation (P) based on records shown on map in lower left. Red dots on map indicate sites used to constrain ocean sea-surface temperatures, yellow dots constrain continental temperatures, and blue dots constrain continental precipitation. PC1s are shown as blue lines, PC2s as red lines. (Source: Fig. 4 from Clark et al. (2012) Global Climate Evolution During the Last Deglaciation, PNAS, Vol. 19: E1134-E1142.)


The SynTraCE-21 working group ran from 2009 to 2014 and sought to understand the Earth's climate evolution during the last 21,000 years through comparison of proxy data networks with transient simulations of the Earth's climate, run using state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs).

The climate of the last 21 kyr is important because it exhibits significant regional-to-global climate variability under large climate forcing. 

New proxy evidence and new modeling activities have led to rapid advances in our understanding of climate change over the last 21 kyr. Climate models and computing power have been significantly enhanced in recent years such that simulations of transient climate evolution can now be efficiently run using state-of-art synchronously coupled general circulation models (CGCMs).

These synchronously coupled simulations will provide an unprecedented opportunity to the paleoclimate community for model/data comparison and improved understanding of climate evolution and abrupt climate change. Moreover, such continuous transient simulations mark a new era in paleoclimate model-data comparison by, for the first time, allowing for a direct comparison of time series between the model and data.